In this work, a novel poly(4-vinylpyridine)-functionalized magnetic Al-MOF (Al-MOF-Fe3O4@P4VP) was synthesized successfully as an adsorbent for the adsorption of naproxen from aqueous solution. The resulting adsorbent was characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), BET surface area and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Al-MOF-Fe3O4@P4VP had high surface area (123.68 m2/g), porous structure, rough surface and magnetic property. The maximum adsorption capacity of Al-MOF-Fe3O4@P4VP for naproxen could reach up to 31.67 mg/g and the adsorption process was well described by the Freundlich isotherm. The adsorption rate of naproxen on Al-MOF-Fe3O4@P4VP was very fast and the kinetics could be well modeled by the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorbent exhibited good adsorption ability even after ten adsorption-desorption cycles. Al-MOF-Fe3O4@P4VP had the characteristics of high removal efficiency, fast adsorption speed, good reusability and easy separation, making it a novel environment-friendly and effective magnetic nanomaterial in adsorbing naproxen from wastewater.