BACKGROUND : Food insecurity is a pressing social and public health issue that varies in degree and impact on individuals and social groups, requiring immediate attention for policymakers and decision-makers. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and associated factors of food insecurity of rural households particularly in the Shebel Berenta and Machakel districts of East Gojjam zone. METHODS : A cross-sectional study design was conducted, in the fall of March 2017 among 504 households. Households are selected using a systematic sampling technique through multistage cluster sampling technique (two stage cluster sampling). The data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire covering a range of topics including 18 core food security modules (CFSM) question series, socioeconomic, demographic and related variables. Multivariable Partial proportional odds model (PPOM) was employed to identify the factors associated with food insecurity in rural households. RESULTS : Of a total of 504 households considered in the study, 54 (10.71%) were highly food secure, 75 (14.88%) were marginally food secure, 157 (31.15%) were low food secure, and 218 (43.25%) were severely food insecure. District (Machakel) (AOR = 3.28 95% CI: 1.73, 6.24), household head education status, illiterate (AOR = 113.4, 95% CI:7.02,1832.02), read and write (AOR = 169.29, 95%CI:11.64, 2461.39), and elementary completed (AOR = 119.75,95%CI:8.43,1700.74), agro-ecological zone, Woina Dega (AOR = 0.0021,95% CI: 0.00009,0.0514), Dega (AOR = 0.0323, 95%CI: 0.002, 0.5209), family size (AOR = 1.18, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.36), landholding (AOR = 0.767, 95% CI: 0.605, 0.972), TLU (AOR = 0.151, 95% CI: 0.0716, 0.3189), access to toilet (no) (AOR = 7.63, 95% CI: 1.459, 39.78), practicing irrigation (yes) (AOR = 0.121, 95% CI: 0.037, 0.38), loan (no) (AOR = 2.83, 95% CI:1.36, 5.89), access to energy, government electric (AOR = 0.468, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.94), solar panels (AOR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.79), soil fertility, moderate (AOR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.87), fertile (AOR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.032, 0.72) were significant associated food insecurity factors in the study area. CONCLUSIONS : In this study, a high prevalence of food insecurity and various associated food insecurity factors have been identified in the study area. Thus, the concerned stockholders should intervene in food insecure households via different irrigation practices and by considering household size, community-based household head education, and landholding in hectare.