Bovine trichomonosis is a sexually transmitted disease considered as an important cause of early reproductive failure in beef cattle. To investigate the occurrence of the infection in different Spanish beef cattle-producing areas, retrospective data from the SALUVET veterinary diagnostic laboratory (Veterinary Faculty, Madrid, Spain) derived from the analysis of samples from beef bulls that were routinely tested for Tritrichomonas foetus infection, were compiled from 2011 to 2015. In addition, a number of potential risk factors were assessed. T. foetus was detected in 12.7% (385/3016; 95% CI: 11.5%-13.9%) of samples from bulls and in 20.7% (195/941; 95% CI: 18.1%-23.3%) of the herds tested. "Bull age" and "reproductive disorders in the herd" were the risk factors identified in the multivariable analysis. Bulls older than 3 years (19.7%) were more likely to be infected than young bulls (8.2%) and T. foetus was more often detected in herds with reproductive problems (27.9%) than in those without reproductive disorders (9.4%). The prevalence in bulls originating in mountain systems (13.9%, 267/1922) was significantly higher than that in "dehesa" (Mediterranean holm-oak pasture) areas (10.8%; 118/1094) (P ˂ 0.05), which might be attributable to the use of communal pastures and specific management practices in mountain systems. The results reported here indicate that T. foetus infection is substantially spread among beef cattle herds, suggesting that BT could be having a significant negative impact on the reproduction and productivity of Spanish beef herds managed under extensive conditions.