Prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications among geriatric residents in nursing care homes in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study.


School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, 47500, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. [Email]


Background Polypharmacy has been associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality among older adults especially those living in nursing homes. Explicit criteria to evaluate the appropriateness of medications have recently been updated. Objective To estimate and compare the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) among older adults in nursing homes using screening tool for older people's prescription (STOPP-2) and the 2015 Beers criteria. Setting Nursing care homes in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Method A cross-sectional survey of medications used among residents living in nursing homes was performed. The 2015 Beers criteria and STOPP-2 criteria were used to evaluate the use of PIMs among this population. These PIMs were subsequently classified using the Pharmaceutical Network Europe classification (PCNE). Main outcome measure Number of PIMs among residents using both criteria. Results A total of 155 residents were recruited into the study. The prevalence of PIMs was 9.7% using the STOPP-2 criteria, 17.6% using the 2015 Beers criteria and 21.3% when both tools were used in combination. The PCNE criteria identified a total of 198 drug related issues, with an average of 1.27 issue per resident. Factors associated with higher risk of having PIM include multiple medication use and history of psychiatric disorder. Conclusion The 2015 Beers criteria was able to identify more PIM's compared to STOPP-2 criteria. The findings also support the expansion of pharmacists' services in nursing homes in Malaysia.


Beers criteria,Nursing homes,Pharmacist service,Potentially inappropriate medication,STOPP,