The aim of this study was to characterize qualitatively and quantitatively the composition of the main rhizodeposits emitted from maize (Zea mays) under Cd stress, in order to discuss their role in Cd availability and tolerance. Maize was grown for 6 weeks in sand at four Cd exposure levels (0, 10, 20, and 40 μM Cd in nutrient solution) and two types of rhizodeposits were collected at the end of cultivation period. Mucilage and other molecules adhering to rhizospheric sand were extracted with a buffer before root exudates were collected by diffusion into water. Total carbon, proteins, amino acids, and sugars were analyzed for both rhizodeposit types and about 40 molecules were identified using GC-MS and LC-MS. Cadmium effect on plant morphology and functioning was slight, but consistent with previous works on Cd toxicity. However, rhizodeposition did tend to be impacted, with a decrease in total carbon, sugars, and amino acids correlating with an increasing Cd content. Such a decrease was not noticeable for proteins in root exudates. These observations were confirmed by the same trends in individual compound contents, although the results were generally not statistically significant. Many of the molecules determined are well-known to modify, whether directly or indirectly, Cd speciation and dynamics in the soil and could play a role in Cd tolerance.