Department of Neurobiology School of Basic Medical Sciences, Center of Parkinson Disease Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing Key Laboratory for Neural Regeneration and Repair, Beijing Key Laboratory on Parkinson's Disease, Key Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Disease of the Ministry of Education, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069, China. Electronic address: [Email]
Many neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by progressive loss of neurons and abnormal protein accumulation, including amyloid (A)β and tau in Alzheimer's disease and Lewy bodies and α-synuclein (α-syn) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent evidence suggests that adaptive immunity plays an important role in PD, and that anti-α-syn antibodies can be used as therapy in neurodegenerative diseases; monoclonal antibodies were shown to inhibit α-syn propagation and aggregation in PD models and patients. In this review, we summarize the different pathological states of α-syn, including gene mutations, truncation, phosphorylation, and the high molecular weight form, and describe the specific antibodies that recognize the α-syn monomer or oligomer, some of which have been tested in clinic trials. We also discuss future research directions and potential targets in PD therapy.