Promoter Hypermethylation of Genes Encoding for RASSF/Hippo Pathway Members Reveals Specific Alteration Pattern in Diffuse Gliomas.


UNICAEN, CEA, CNRS, ISTCT/CERVOxy Group, Cyceron, a Public Interest Group, Normandy University, Caen, France; Department of Anatomy and Pathological Cytology, CHU de Caen, Caen, France. Electronic address: [Email]


Ras association domain family (RASSF)/Hippo pathway alterations are poorly characterized in diffuse gliomas. We assayed promoter methylation of LATS1/2, MST1(STK4)/MST2(STK3), RASSF1, RASSF2, Nore1A/RASSF5, RASSF6, and RASSF10 genes in 133 diffuse gliomas. The RASSF/Hippo pathway was highly silenced in gliomas, particularly RASSF1A (79.4%) and LATS2 (35.9%). The most frequent combination of promoter hypermethylation of one RASSF gene and one Hippo pathway member's gene was RASSF1/LATS2-coupled hypermethylation [n = 44 (33.08%)]. Hypermethylated profiles were related to IDH mutation, yet not randomly in IDH-mutated gliomas, because LATS2 promoter hypermethylation was more frequent in oligodendroglioma than in astrocytoma. RASSF1 and LATS2 promoter hypermethylation predicted a longer overall survival (OS). Considering hypermethylation of these two promoters, Cox proportional hazard regression analysis categorized the patients into three prognostic groups: i) high risk of death (n = 24; both RASSF1 and LATS2 unmethylated promoters; median OS, 13 months); ii) intermediate risk of death (n = 65; RASSF1 or LATS2 hypermethylated promoter; median OS, 50.5 months; HR = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.6-6.4; P = 0.001); and iii) low risk of death (n = 44; both RASSF1 and LATS2 hypermethylated promoters; median OS, 119 months; HR = 75.1; 95% CI, 3.3-15.1; P = 0.001). We have thus highlighted a simple two-gene (RASSF1/LATS2) methylation signature as a tool to stratify different prognostic groups of patients with diffuse glioma, adding further prognostic information within the IDH-mutated group.