Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Via Montpellier 1, Rome 00133, Italy; University of San Raffaele, Via di Val Cannuta 247, 00166 Rome, Italy. Electronic address: [Email]
The relationship between cancer and inflammation is one of the most important fields for both clinical and translational research. Despite numerous studies reported interesting and solid data about the prognostic value of the presence of inflammatory infiltrate in cancers, the biological role of inflammation in prostate cancer development is not yet fully clarified. The characterization of molecular pathways that connect altered inflammatory response and prostate cancer progression can provide the scientific rationale for the identification of new prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Specifically, the detection of infiltrating immune cells or related-cytokines by histology and/or by molecular imaging techniques could profoundly change the management of prostate cancer patients. In this context, the anatomic pathology and imaging diagnostic teamwork can provide a valuable support for the validation of new targets for diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer lesions associated to the inflammatory infiltrate. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature about the role of molecular imaging technique and anatomic pathology in the study of the mutual interaction occurring between prostate cancer and inflammation. Specifically, we reported the more recent advances in molecular imaging and histological methods for the early detection of prostate lesions associated to the inflammatory infiltrate.