Proteasome-mediated remodeling of the proteome and phosphoproteome during kiwifruit pollen germination.


Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Sezione di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare, Università degli Studi di Urbino "Carlo Bo", via Saffi 2, Urbino 61029, Italy. Electronic address: [Email]


Proteasome activity is essential for pollen tube emergence and growth; nevertheless, little is known about proteasome function at the molecular level. The objective of this study was to identify molecular targets and pathways which are directly/indirectly controlled by the proteasome during pollen germination. To this aim, changes in the proteome and phosphoproteome of Actinidia pollen, germinated in the presence of the proteasome inhibitor MG132, were investigated. Phosphoproteins were enriched by metal oxide/hydroxide affinity chromatography and phosphopeptides were further isolated using titanium ion (Ti4+) functional magnetic microparticles prior to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Our results show that proteasome inhibition affects the phosphoproteome more profoundly than the proteome. Accordingly, the steady-state abundance of some kinases and phosphatases was changed and/or their phosphorylation status altered. Notably, affected proteins are involved in processes that are fundamental to pollen germination such as cytoskeletal organization, vesicular transport, cell wall synthesis and remodeling, protein synthesis, folding and degradation as well as energetic metabolism. Our data provide a molecular framework for the structural alterations observed when the proteasome is inhibited, contribute to the understanding of how proteasome activity regulates pollen germination, show the cross-talk between phosphorylation and proteasomal degradation and are a resource for further functional analyses. SIGNIFICANCE: Pollen germination and tube growth are fundamental to successful fertilization in seed plants. These events are based on dramatic remodeling and the dismantling of existing programs, which are replaced by new ones. Degradation plays a prominent role in reshaping the protein repertoire, also cross talking with the bulk of post-translational modifications. At present, phosphorylation is the only modification studied in germinating pollen on a large scale. The proteasome has been universally recognized as one of the most important sites for protein degradation and its function has been shown to be essential for pollen tube emergence and elongation. Upon proteasome inhibition structural alterations and dysregulation of pivotal processes governing pollen germination have been described; however, a mechanistic framework for the proteasome function at the molecular level is still lacking. In this investigation we provide the very first view of the global impact of the proteasome in remodeling the proteome and phosphoproteome during germination and tube growth. Our results show how proteasome inhibition alters the levels, and profoundly affects the phosphorylation status of many proteins involved, controlling energetic and synthetic pathways and signaling cascades.



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