Clinical mastitis is still an intractable problem for sheep breeding. The natural immunologic mechanisms of the mammary gland against infections are not yet understood. For a better understanding of the disease-associated proteins during clinical mastitis in meat sheep, we performed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE)-based comparative proteomic analyses of mammary tissues, including from healthy mammary tissues (HMTs) and from mammary tissues with clinical mastitis (CMMTs). The 2-DE results showed that a total of 10 up-regulated and 16 down-regulated proteins were identified in CMMTs when compared to HMTs. Of these, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses revealed that most proteins were associated with immune responses or metabolisms. The results of qRT-PCR and Western blot for randomly selected four differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) including superoxide dismutase [Mn] (SOD2), annexin A2 (ANAX2), keratin 10 (KRT10) and endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 29 (ERP29) showed that their expression trends were consistent with 2-DE results except ANXA2 mRNA levels. This is an initial report describing the 2-DE-based proteomics study of the meat sheep mammary gland with clinical mastitis caused by natural infection, which provides additional insight into the immune and metabolic mechanisms during sheep mastitis.