A novel rice lesion mimic mutant (LMM) was isolated from the mutant population of Japonica rice cultivar Hitomebore generated by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) treatment. Compared with the wild-type (WT), the mutant, tentatively designated E40, developed necrotic lesions over the whole growth period along with detectable changes in several important agronomic traits including lower height, fewer tillers, lower yield, and premature death. To understand the molecular mechanism of mutation-induced phenotypic differences in E40, a proteomics-based approach was used to identify differentially accumulated proteins between E40 and WT. Proteomic data from isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) showed that 233 proteins were significantly up- or down-regulated in E40 compared with WT. These proteins are involved in diverse biological processes, but phenylpropanoid biosynthesis was the only up-regulated pathway. Differential expression of the genes encoding some candidate proteins with significant up- or down-regulation in E40 were further verified by qPCR. Consistent with the proteomic results, substance and energy flow in E40 shifted from basic metabolism to secondary metabolism, mainly phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, which is likely involved in the formation of leaf spots.