Protocol and baseline data for a prospective open-label explorative randomized single-center comparative study to determine the effects of various intravenous iron preparations on markers of oxidative stress and kidney injury in chronic kidney disease (IRON-CKD).


Hull University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust and Hull York Medical School, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ, UK. [Email]


Intravenous (IV) iron is frequently used to treat iron deficiency/anemia in patients who are unable to tolerate oral iron or the oral iron is not sufficient toreplete iron requirements. However, safety concerns regarding the potential increase in oxidative stress and other adverse effects persist and it remains unclear whether all iron preparations are equivalent. Indeed, the comparative risk of adverse events with IV iron preparations has not been extensively assessed. We hypothesize that IV iron leads to changes in oxidative stress, endothelial function, and potential renal damage depending on the iron formulation (related to the generation of "free" or catalytic labile iron) and this may result in more tubular and glomerular injury manifested as increased proteinuria and raised neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).


Acute kidney injury,Chronic kidney disease,Cosmofer,Intravenous iron,Iron deficiency,Monofer,Oxidative stress,Protocol,Randomized trial,Venofer,

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