Enterococcus faecium TJUQ1 with high bacteriocin-producing ability was isolated from pickled Chinese celery. In this study, enterocin TJUQ1 was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, reversed-phase chromatography (Sep-Pak C8) and cation-exchange chromatography. The activity of the purified bacteriocin was 44,566.41 ± 874.69 AU/mg, which corresponds to a purification fold of 35.89 ± 2.34. The molecular mass was 5520 Da by MALDI-TOF MS and Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE. The result of LC-MS/MS showed that the bacteriocin shared 59.15% identity with enterocin produced by E. faecium GN (accession no. O34071). PCR amplification revealed that E. faecium TJUQ1 possesses a gene encoding enterocin B with 60% identity to enterocin B. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy showed that the molecular conformation was 32.6% helix, 19.5% beta, 12.9% turn and 35.0% random. The stability of enterocin TJUQ1 was measured. After exposure at 121 °C for 15 min, the residual antimicrobial activity of enterocin TJUQ1 was 85.95 ± 1.32%. The antimicrobial activity of enterocin TJUQ1 was still active over a pH range of 3-11. Enterocin TJUQ1 was inactivated after exposure to proteolytic enzymes but was not inactivated by lipase or amylase. These results showed that enterocin TJUQ1 was a novel class II bacteriocin. Enterocin TJUQ1 showed wide antibacterial activity against food-borne gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. The MIC was 5.26 ± 0.24 μg/mL against L. monocytogenes CMCC 1595. SEM and TEM were used to observe the changes in the morphological and intracellular organization of L. monocytogenes CMCC 1595 cells treated with enterocin TJUQ1. The results demonstrated that enterocin TJUQ1 increased extracellular electrical conductivity, facilitated pore formation, triggered the release of UV-absorbing materials, ATP and LDH, and even caused cell lysis in L. monocytogenes CMCC 1595 cells. Based on the characterization, the wide inhibitory spectrum and mode of action determined so far, enterocin TJUQ1 is a potential preservative for the food industry.