Urinary excretion of 2,5-hexanedione is currently used to estimate the exposure levels of hexane occurring to an individual during the previous work shift. However, because hexane exposures and urinary 2,5-hexanedione levels can vary considerably from day to day, and subchronic to chronic exposures to hexane are required to produce neuropathy, this biomarker may not accurately reflect the risk of an individual for developing hexane neuropathy. This investigation examines the potential of hexane-derived pyrrole adducts produced on globin and plasma proteins as markers for integrating cumulative exposures. Because the pyrrole markers incorporate bioactivation of hexane to 2,5-hexandione and the initial step of protein adduction involved in hexane-induced neuropathy, they potentially can serve as biomarkers of effect through reflecting pathogenetic events within the nervous system. Additionally, pyrrole formation is an irreversible reaction suggesting that hexane-derived protein pyrroles can be used to assess cumulative exposures to provide a better characterization of individual susceptibilities.