Quality evaluation of decoction pieces of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae by near infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics.


School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, PR China; The Key Unit of Chinese Medicine Digitalization Quality Evaluation of SATCM, Guangzhou 510006, PR China; The Research Center for Quality Engineering Technology of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Guangdong Universities, Guangzhou 510006, PR China. Electronic address: [Email]


OBJECTIVE : To establish a fast, simple and reliable method for quality evaluation of decoction pieces of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (referred as BZ below) by near infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics.
METHODS : Twelve batches of raw medicinal materials of BZ were collected from three main producing location in China. According to the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, these raw decoction pieces were stir-fried in wheat bran using a stir-frying machine for 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 min, respectively. The resulted 60 samples were categorized into three classes (i.e., light, moderate and dark) by experienced pharmacists according to their surface color. After that, these slices were smashed to acquire near infrared spectra and to determine the contents of atractylenolide I, II and III by HPLC method. Qualitative and quantitative models were constructed to relate the spectra to the color labels and to the contents of three atractylenolides. Various chemometrics methods, including calibration methods like principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR), spectra pretreatment methods like standard normal variate, multiplicative scatter correction, derivation and smoothing, feature selection methods like particle swarm optimization, genetic algorithm (GA) and other fourteen methods were compared in detail. The PLS-DA models were evaluated by jackknife tests with calculating parameters such as error rate (ERR), true positive rate (TPR), true negative rate (TNR) and F1 score, meanwhile the PLSR models were evaluated by five fold cross-validation tests with calculating parameters such as coefficients of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and residual predictive deviation (RPD).
RESULTS : The PLS-DA models with spectra pretreated by 1D5S or 1D9S and wavelengths selected by InfFS, Relief-F, MutInfFS, fisher or CFS performed best, yielding 0.00 of ERR, 1.00 of TPR, 1.00 of TNR, and 1.00 of F1 for all three classes. As for quantitative models, the PLSR models by 1D5S spectra pretreatment and GA wavelengths selection performed best, where R2C and R2P were all >0.95, RMSEC and RMSEP were all <0.04%, MAEC and MAEP were all <0.04%, and RPD were all >5.
CONCLUSIONS : The present qualitative and quantitative models can be successfully used to distinguish the degree of suitability of processed BZ, and to determine the contents of three atractylenolides, which thus are of great help for quality evaluation and control of processed BZ and other decoction pieces.


Chemometrics,Near infrared spectroscopy,Quality evaluation,Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae,

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