RNA-Modified T Cells Mediate Effective Delivery of Immunomodulatory Cytokines to Brain Tumors.


UF Brain Tumor Immunotherapy Program, Preston A. Wells Center for Brain Tumor Therapy, Lillian S. Wells Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address: [Email]


With the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), successful immunotherapeutic drug delivery to CNS malignancies remains a challenge. Immunomodulatory agents, such as cytokines, can reprogram the intratumoral microenvironment; however, systemic cytokine delivery has limited access to the CNS. To bypass the limitations of systemically administered cytokines, we investigated if RNA-modified T cells could deliver macromolecules directly to brain tumors. The abilities of T cells to cross the BBB and mediate direct cytotoxic killing of intracranial tumors make them an attractive tool as biological carriers. Using T cell mRNA electroporation, we demonstrated that activated T cells can be modified to secrete granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) protein while retaining their inherent effector functions in vitro. GM-CSF RNA-modified T cells effectively delivered GM-CSF to intracranial tumors in vivo and significantly extended overall survival in an orthotopic treatment model. Importantly, GM-CSF RNA-modified T cells demonstrated superior anti-tumor efficacy as compared to unmodified T cells alone or in combination with systemic administration of recombinant GM-CSF. Anti-tumor effects were associated with increased IFN-γ secretion locally within the tumor microenvironment and systemic antigen-specific T cell expansion. These findings demonstrate that RNA-modified T cells may serve as a versatile platform for the effective delivery of biological agents to CNS tumors.


RNA,T cells,adoptive cellular therapy,brain tumor,immunotherapy,

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