Raman spectroscopy of blood plasma samples from breast cancer patients at different stages.


Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Electronic address: [Email]


Raman spectroscopy was employed for the characterization of blood plasma samples from patients at different stages of breast cancer. Blood plasma samples taken from clinically diagnosed breast cancer patients were compared with healthy controls using multivariate data analysis techniques (principal components analysis - PCA) to establish Raman spectral features which can be considered spectral markers of breast cancer development. All the stages of the disease can be differentiated from normal samples. It is also found that stage 2 and 3 are biochemically similar, but can be differentiated from each other by PCA. The Raman spectral data of the stage 4 is found to be biochemically distinct, but very variable between patients. Raman spectral features associated with DNA and proteins were identified, which are exclusive to patient plasma samples. Moreover, there are several other spectral features which are strikingly different in the blood plasma samples of different stages of breast cancer. In order to further explore the potential of Raman spectroscopy as the basis of a minimally invasive screening technique for breast cancer diagnosis and staging, PCA-Factorial Discriminant Analysis (FDA) was employed to classify the Raman spectral datasets of the blood plasma samples of the breast cancer patients, according to different stages of the disease, yielding promisingly high values of sensitivity and specificity for all stages.


Blood plasma,Breast cancer,Cancer staging,Multivariate data analysis,Raman spectroscopy,

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