The current chemotherapy against Chagas disease is inadequate and insufficient. A series of ten Mannich base-type derivatives have been synthesized to evaluate their in vitro antichagasic activity. After a preliminary screening, compounds 7 and 9 were subjected to in vivo assays in a murine model. Both compounds caused a substantial decrease in parasitemia in the chronic phase, which was an even better result than that of the reference drug benznidazole. In addition, compound 9 also showed better antichagasic activity during the acute phase. Moreover, metabolite excretion, effect on mitochondrial membrane potential and the inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) studies were also performed to identify their possible mechanism of action. Finally, docking studies proposed a binding mode of the Fe-SOD enzyme similar to our previous series, which validated our design strategy. Therefore, the results suggest that these compounds should be considered for further preclinical evaluation as antichagasic agents.