Real-life experience of inhaled iloprost for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: Insights from the Spanish REHAP registry.


Pulmonary Hypertension Unit, Cardiology Department of Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Avenida de Córdoba s/n, 28041 Madrid, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (CIBERCV), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Avenida de Monforte de Lemos 3-5, 28029 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: [Email]


BACKGROUND : REHAP is a voluntary, observational Spanish registry of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. We analyzed the experience (use and effectiveness) with inhaled iloprost (inh-ILO) in real-life conditions during a 3-year period.
METHODS : Patients included were those with PAH ≥14 years recruited during 1998-2016 who had received inh-ILO. Variables were collected at the beginning of treatment (0 ± 3 months) and 12 ± 3/36 ± 6 months follow-up. Effectiveness was assessed in the intent-to-treat population as changes in functional class and/or physical performance and transplant-free survival from the beginning of treatment. Stopping inh-ILO-related survival was also assessed. Subanalyses included treatment strategy (first-line therapy -monotherapy or upfront combination- or sequential therapy) and risk of clinical worsening/death.
RESULTS : Inh-ILO was the most frequently used prostanoid in Spain, rendering 267 patients eligible for analysis. Median age was 54 years; 61% were WHO FC III. Sixty (23%) patients started inh-ILO as monotherapy, 27 (10%) as upfront combination and 180 (67%) sequentially. At 3-year follow-up significant clinical improvements were observed; however, transplant-free survival rate was 54%, being poorer in patients at high risk (63% vs. 85% in low risk patients; P < 0.001) and similar in the three treatment strategies. Only 25% patients remained on inh-ILO. Three-year after stopping inh-ILO-related survival rate was 24.7%.
CONCLUSIONS : Data from the REHAP collected during 3 years shows that inh-ILO has low effectiveness independently of the treatment strategy used, with a 3-year survival rate of 54% despite significant clinical improvements, probably due to the use in high-risk patients. Discontinuation rate was as high as 75%.


Effectiveness,Iloprost,Prostanoids,Pulmonary arterial hypertension,Pulmonary hypertension,Real-life experience,Registry,Survival,