Recent Trends in the Quantification of Biogenic Amines in Biofluids as Biomarkers of Various Disorders: A Review.


Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Medical University of Gdańsk, Hallera 107, 80-416 Gdańsk, Poland. [Email]


Biogenic amines (BAs) are bioactive endogenous compounds which play a significant physiological role in many cell processes like cell proliferation and differentiation, signal transduction and membrane stability. Likewise, they are important in the regulation of body temperature, the increase/decrease of blood pressure or intake of nutrition, as well as in the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins, hormones and alkaloids. Additionally, it was confirmed that these compounds can be considered as useful biomarkers for the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of several neuroendocrine and cardiovascular disorders, including neuroendocrine tumours (NET), schizophrenia and Parkinson's Disease. Due to the fact that BAs are chemically unstable, light-sensitive and possess a high tendency for spontaneous oxidation and decomposition at high pH values, their determination is a real challenge. Moreover, their concentrations in biological matrices are extremely low. These issues make the measurement of BA levels in biological matrices problematic and the application of reliable bioanalytical methods for the extraction and determination of these molecules is needed. This article presents an overview of the most recent trends in the quantification of BAs in human samples with a special focus on liquid chromatography (LC), gas chromatography (GC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques. Thus, new approaches and technical possibilities applied in these methodologies for the assessment of BA profiles in human samples and the priorities for future research are reported and critically discussed. Moreover, the most important applications of LC, GC and CE in pharmacology, psychology, oncology and clinical endocrinology in the area of the analysis of BAs for the diagnosis, follow-up and monitoring of the therapy of various health disorders are presented and critically evaluated.


biogenic amines,biomarkers,capillary electrophoresis,gas chromatography,human samples,liquid chromatography,non-separation techniques,

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