Recent advances on ammonia-based pretreatments of lignocellulosic biomass.

Affiliation

Department of Chemical & Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Ammonia-based pretreatments have been extensively studied in the last decade as one of the leading pretreatment technologies for lignocellulose biorefining. Here, we discuss the key features and compare performances of several leading ammonia-based pretreatments (e.g., soaking in aqueous ammonia or SAA, ammonia recycled percolation or ARP, ammonia fiber expansion or AFEX, and extractive ammonia or EA). We provide detailed insight into the distinct physicochemical mechanisms employed during ammonia-based pretreatments and its impact on downstream bioprocesses (e.g., enzymatic saccharification); such as modification of cellulose crystallinity, lignin/hemicellulose structure, and other ultrastructural changes such as cell wall porosity. Lastly, a brief overview of process technoeconomics and environmental impacts are discussed, along with recommendations for future areas of research on ammonia-based pretreatments.

Keywords

Ammonia,Biorefinery,Lignocellulose,Pretreatment,Technoeconomics,

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