Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th street, TEDA, Tianjin, 300457, People's Republic of China. [Email]
Grifola frondosa is a basidiomycete fungus with potential biomedical applications owing to the presence of bioactive polysaccharides. The activities of polysaccharides are influenced by many factors, particularly temperature; however, the optimal temperature and conditions for preparation of polysaccharides from this organism have not yet been determined. Therefore, in this study, cold-water soluble polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa were extracted at 4 °C (GFP-4) and purified. GFP-4-30, GFP-4-60 and GFP-4-90 were obtained from GFP-4 after treatment at 30 °C, 60 °C, or 90 °C, respectively, for 6 h. MTT results showed that GFP-4 had the highest inhibitory effects on the proliferation of SPC-A-1 cells in vitro. High-performance gel permeation chromatography results demonstrated that the molecular weight of GFP-4 was 1.05 × 106 Da and that GFP-4-30, GFP-4-60, and GFP-4-90 showed different levels of degradation and generated small molecule sugars. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance results indicated that GFPs mainly consisted of α-D-Galp, α-D-Manp and α-D-Glcp. Periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, and methylation results showed that the backbones of the molecules consisted of 1,3-linked-Galp. After heat treatment, percentages of (1 → 3,4) α-D-Galp in heat-treated polysaccharides were obviously decreased, indicating their lower branching degree, and resulting in weaker antitumor effects. Overall, our findings demonstrated changes in the structure-activity relationships of GFP-4 after heat treatment and provided a theoretical basis for the application of GFP-4 in the food and drug industries.