State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal Wetland Ecosystems, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Fujian 361102, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address: [Email]
The fluorochemical industry has shifted to the production of short chain homologues of perfluoalkyl acids (PFAAs) in recent years. Yet the effective removal of short-chain PFAAs from wastewater is still a major challenge. In this study, the removal efficiencies (RM) of short- and long-chain PFAAs emitted from two fluorochemical industrial parks were evaluated in one industrial and two domestic waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of PFAAs in various emerged and submerged aquatic plants in adjacent river and an artificial wetland were also calculated. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were dominant in the whole area. The source water of the fluorochemical industrial WWTP (F-WWTP) gathered from the facilities in Park 2 contained total PFAAs (∑PFAAs) of 5,784 ng/L. Among the four main technologies, the biological aerated filter, combined with upflow sludge bed processes presented the greatest RM of ∑PFAAs in the F-WWTP, respectively. The source water of the wetland from the river brought ∑PFAAs to 21,579 ng/L, emerged plants showed higher BAF of PFBA and PFBS, while lower BAF of PFOA and PFOS than submerged plants. J. serotinus showed both the highest ∑PFAAs and the highest BAF for short chain PFAAs. With the increasing production capacity, this study provided valuable information for risk assessment and management of PFAA emission from point sources.