Marine Biotechnology Division, Earth System Science Organization - National Institute of Ocean Technology (ESSO - NIOT), Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Government of India, Pallikaranai, Chennai, 600100, India. Electronic address: [Email]
The marine plastic pollution has drastic effect on marine species. The importance in environmental issues increases the demand to develop a significant technology which does not burden the marine environment or marine life forms. To mitigate the foreseen problems of micro and nanoplastic contamination, different biotechnological solutions has to be considered. Microbial communities exposed to plastic contaminated sites can adapt and form dense biofilms on the plastic surface and produce active catalytic enzymes. These enzymes can be able to degrade the synthetic polymers. In view of their high catalytic activity, microbial enzymes can be applicable for the degradation of synthetic polymers. This review highlights the toxicity of micro and nanoplastics on marine organisms, biodegradation of plastics and futuristic research needs to solve the issues of plastic pollution in marine environment.