Variety of implant materials have been employed in various disciplines of medical science depending on the requirement of a particular application. Metals, alloys, ceramics, and polymers are the commonly used biomaterials. The main focus of this study is to review the various structural and microstructural properties of titanium and titanium based alloys used as orthopaedic implants. Orthopaedic implants need to possess certain important qualities to ensure their safe and effective use. These properties like the biocompatibility, relevant mechanical properties, high corrosion and wear resistance and osseointegration are summarized in this review. Various attempts to improve upon these properties like different processing routes, surface modifications have also been inculcated in the paper to provide an insight into the extent of research and effort that has been put into developing a highly superior titanium orthopaedic implant.