BACKGROUND : More and more studies suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can lead to an increased fracture risk. Some previous clinical studies and experimental data have shown that some antidiabetic drugs can increase or decrease the incidence of fractures. METHODS : We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and the ClinicalTrials.gov website ( https://www.clinicaltrials.gov ) for published or unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from inception through 2 December 2018 to compare the effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP-4) inhibitors with active control drugs or placebo in T2DM patients. All RCTs had a duration of at least 12 weeks, and the ultimate measure was whether a fracture occurs or not. We calculated odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals by the fixed effect Mantel-Haenszel model. Publication bias was investigated firstly through visual observation of funnel plot asymmetry and then through Begg's test or Egger's test. The Cochrane bias risk tools were used to assess the quality of included studies. RESULTS : Eighty-seven eligible RCTs were included in this study. Of 93,772 participants, 49,270 patients received therapy and 44,502 were control patients. Five kinds of DDP-4 inhibitors were included: sitagliptin, saxagliptin, alogliptin, linagliptin and vildagliptin. There were 676 fractures in the DDP-4 inhibitor treatment group and 646 in the control group. The median average glycosylated hemoglobin level was 8.2%. DDP-4 inhibitor treatment did not seem to influence the fracture risk, no matter whether compared with placebo or active comparators in T2DM patients (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (MH-OR) = 1.01, 95% CI 0.90-1.12, P = 0.92). After three subgroup analyses which were defined by drug type, control regimen and duration, the results were still stable. CONCLUSIONS : This systematic review and meta-analysis shows that DDP-4 inhibitors do not affect the fracture risk when compared with antidiabetic drugs or placebo in T2DM patients.