SIRT1 Modulates the Sensitivity of Prostate Cancer Cells to Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Oncolysis.

Affiliation

Istituto Pasteur Italia-Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Rome, Italy [Email] [Email]

Abstract

Oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising experimental anticancer strategy, based on the use of genetically modified viruses to selectively infect and kill cancer cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a prototypic oncolytic virus (OV) that induces cancer cell death through activation of the apoptotic pathway, although intrinsic resistance to oncolysis is found in some cell lines and many primary tumors, as a consequence of residual innate immunity to the virus. In the effort to improve OV therapeutic efficacy, we previously demonstrated that different agents, including histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs), functioned as reversible chemical switches to dampen the innate antiviral response and improve the susceptibility of resistant cancer cells to VSV infection. In the present study, we demonstrated that the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1) plays a key role in the permissivity of prostate cancer PC-3 cells to VSVΔM51 replication and oncolysis. HDI-mediated enhancement of VSVΔM51 infection and cancer cell killing directly correlated with a decrease of SIRT1 expression. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition as well as silencing of SIRT1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) was sufficient to sensitize PC-3 cells to VSVΔM51 infection, resulting in augmentation of virus replication and spread. Mechanistically, HDIs such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; Vorinostat) and resminostat upregulated the microRNA miR-34a that regulated the level of SIRT1. Taken together, our findings identify SIRT1 as a viral restriction factor that limits VSVΔM51 infection and oncolysis in prostate cancer cells.IMPORTANCE The use of nonpathogenic viruses to target and kill cancer cells is a promising strategy in cancer therapy. However, many types of human cancer are resistant to the oncolytic (cancer-killing) effects of virotherapy. In this study, we identify a host cellular protein, SIRT1, that contributes to the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to infection by a prototypical oncolytic virus. Knockout of SIRT1 activity increases the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to virus-mediated killing. At the molecular level, SIRT1 is controlled by a small microRNA termed miR-34a. Altogether, SIRT1 and/or miR-34a levels may serve as predictors of response to oncolytic-virus therapy.

Keywords

SIRT1,VSV,apoptosis,miRNA,oncolytic virus,

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