A group of proteins, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins, has been shown to play a major role in rodent cerebral ischemia. Here, we proved that transient global cerebral ischemia induces a marked increase in protein sumo2/3 conjugation levels, we also find that global sumo2/3 conjugation is involved in ischemic tolerance in mice. Mice preconditioned by sublethal ischemia were less vulnerable to severe ischemia than non-preconditioned mice. Five-minute BCCAO precondition decreased the levels of SUMO2/3-conjugated proteins induced by MCAO. These findings suggest that maintenance of a globally decreased SUMO2/3 (and maybe SUMO-2/3) conjugation level as revealed by immunoblot assays is a component of ischemic tolerance.