It is generally recognized that marginal changes in landscape characteristics can influence multiple ecosystem services, but the causal relationships involved are still very unclear due to lack of knowledge and data gaps. Planners and managers need spatial information and evidence on these causal relationships for systematic and sound land planning. This study evaluated the effects of landscape characteristics on seven types of ecosystem services and the trade-offs among the ecosystem services by combining statistical data and the InVEST model with correlation analysis across Taihu Lake Basin, China. We found that all ecosystem services except food production increased from 2005 to 2015 in the whole basin. We also found that correlations between landscape characteristic metrics and ecosystem services indicators changed over time for different types of ecosystem service indicators at the county scale, and between county and pixel scale. The results demonstrated the effects of landscape characteristic metrics on multiple ecosystem services indicators and the tradeoffs among these ecosystem services indicators, and also revealed scale effects on correlations and tradeoffs. Therefore planners and managers need to consider both landscape characteristic metrics and scale effects for effective landscape management to improve ecosystem services and reduce unwanted tradeoffs.