The coastal zone has distinguishable but tightly connected ecosystems from rivers to the ocean and globally contributes to nutrient cycling including phytoplankton-derived organic matter. Particularly, bacterial contributions to phytoplankton-derived dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) degradation have been recently evaluated by using advanced sequencing technologies to understand their role in the marine microbial food web. Here, we surveyed the bacterial diversity and community composition under seasonal water mixing in the bay of Gwangyang (GW), a semi-enclosed estuary at the southern tip of the Korea Peninsula. We detected phylogenetic dissimilarities among season-specific habitats in GW and their specific bacterial taxa. Additionally, bacterial contribution to degradation of phytoplankton-derived DMSP from estuarine to coastal waters at euphotic depths in GW was investigated as the presence or absence of DMSP demethylation gene, encoded by dmdA. Among the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in GW bacterial communities, the most dominant and ubiquitous OTU1 was affiliated with the SAR11 clade (SAR11-OTU). The population dynamics of SAR11-OTU in dmdA-detected GW waters suggest that water mass mixing plays a major role in shaping bacterial communities involved in phytoplankton-derived DMSP demethylation.