See, Think, and Act: Real-Time Adaptive Radiotherapy.


ACRF Image X Institute, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: [Email]


The world is embracing the information age, with real-time data at hand to assist with many decisions. Similarly, in cancer radiotherapy we are inexorably moving toward using information in a smarter and faster fashion, to usher in the age of real-time adaptive radiotherapy. The three critical steps of real-time adaptive radiotherapy, aligned with driverless vehicle technology are a continuous see, think, and act loop. See: use imaging systems to probe the patient anatomy or physiology as it evolves with time. Think: use current and prior information to optimize the treatment using the available adaptive degrees of freedom. Act: deliver the real-time adapted treatment. This paper expands upon these three critical steps for real-time adaptive radiotherapy, provides a historical context, reviews the clinical rationale, and gives a future outlook for real-time adaptive radiotherapy.