Trypodendron retusum (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) females excised from newly attacked trembling aspen, Populus tremuloides Michaux (Salicaceae), were shown for the first time to produce the aggregation pheromone (+)-lineatin. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection analysis (GC-EAD) disclosed that the antennae of T. retusum, as well as the antennae of three sympatric species, native T. lineatum (Olivier) and T. rufitarsus (Kirby) and exotic T. domesticum (L.), respond to synthetic (+)-lineatin, but not the (-) enantiomer. In contrast, the antennae of T. betulae Swaine responded to SR- and RR-linalool oxide pyranoid and did not detect lineatin. GC-EAD analysis of volatiles from host and nonhost tree species revealed that conifer-produced α-pinene and angiosperm-produced conophthorin and salicylaldehyde were perceived by the antennae of all three native lineatin-perceiving species, suggesting behavioral activity. Field trapping experiments showed that salicylaldehyde synergized the response of coastal, but not interior, T. retusum to lineatin and inhibited the response of T. lineatum and T. rufitarsus. In the absence of salicylaldehyde, α-pinene appeared to inhibit the response of interior T. retusum to lineatin, while for T. lineatum and T. rufitarsus it had an apparent positive additive or synergistic effect. No behavioral response occurred to conophthorin. The results provide evidence for semiochemical-based reproductive isolation between T. retusum and T. betulae, and between these two angiosperm-infesting species and the two conifer-infesting species. They do not explain how isolation could be maintained between T. lineatum and T. rufitarsus.
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