Few studies have investigated prognostic biomarkers in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Nardilysin (NRDC), a metalloendopeptidase of the M16 family, has been suggested to play important roles in inflammation and several cancer types. We herein examined the clinical significance and biological function of NRDC in ICC.Experimental Design: We measured serum NRDC levels in 98 patients with ICC who underwent surgical resection in two independent cohorts to assess its prognostic impact. We also analyzed NRDC mRNA levels in cancerous tissue specimens from 43 patients with ICC. We investigated the roles of NRDC in cell proliferation, migration, gemcitabine sensitivity, and gene expression in ICC cell lines using gene silencing.