Curcuma zedoaria rhizome (Zingiberaceae) is a well-known traditional medicinal plant used in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine to treat various cancers. This study aimed to identify the cytotoxic components from C. zedoaria rhizomes that act against gastric cancer, which is the third leading cause of death from cancer worldwide because the MeOH extract of C. zedoaria rhizome was found to show a cytotoxic effect against gastric cancer AGS cells. Repeated column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC purification were used to separate the components from the C. zedoaria MeOH extract. Two new sesquiterpenes, curcumenol-9,10-epoxide (1) and curcuzedoalide B (2), and 12 known related sesquiterpenes (3-14) were isolated from the C. zedoaria MeOH extract. The structures of new compounds were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic experiments and HR-ESIMS, and quantum chemical ECD calculations. The cytotoxic effects of the isolated compounds were measured in human gastric cancer AGS cells using an MTT cell viability assay. Compounds 9, 10, and 12 exhibited cytotoxic effects against gastric cancer AGS cells, with IC50 values in the range of 212-392 μM. These findings provide further experimental scientific evidence to support the traditional use of C. zedoaria rhizomes for the treatment of cancer. Curcumenol (9), 4,8-dioxo-6β-methoxy-7α,11-epoxycarabrane (10), and zedoarofuran (12) were identified as the main cytotoxic components in C. zedoaria rhizomes.