Sesquiterpenoids from the flower bud extract of Tussilago farfara were effectively utilized as a reducing agent for eco-friendly synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. The silver and gold nanoparticles had a characteristic surface plasmon resonance at 416 nm and 538 nm, respectively. Microscopic images revealed that both nanoparticles were spherical, and their size was measured to be 13.57 ± 3.26 nm for the silver nanoparticles and 18.20 ± 4.11 nm for the gold nanoparticles. The crystal structure was determined to be face-centered cubic by X-ray diffraction. Colloidal stability of the nanoparticle solution was retained in a full medium, which was used in the cell culture experiment. The antibacterial activity result demonstrated that the silver nanoparticles showed better activity (two- to four-fold enhancement) than the extract alone on both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Interestingly, the highest antibacterial activity was obtained against vancomycin-resistant Enterococci Van-A type Enterococcus faecium. Cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines confirmed that gold nanoparticles were more cytotoxic than silver nanoparticles. The highest cytotoxicity was observed on human pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma cells. Therefore, both nanoparticles synthesized with the sesquiterpenoids from T. farfara flower bud extract can be applicable as drug delivery vehicles of anticancer or antibacterial agents for future nanomedicine applications.