Department of Emergency Medicine, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Institute of Health Economics and Clinical Epidemiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany. Electronic address: [Email]
OBJECTIVE : To investigate the influence of type of anticoagulation - direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) vs vitamin K antagonists (VKA) - on length of hospital stay (LOS) and hospitalization rates in patients with visible hematuria, as visible hematuria in anticoagulated patients can be distressing, difficult to control and even life-threatening. METHODS : This retrospective cohort study was conducted at the emergency department (ED) of a tertiary university hospital in Switzerland. All patients admitted with visible hematuria from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2016 were included. We compared the primary clinical outcome parameters (hospitalization rate and LOS) as well as secondary outcomes (ICU admission, ED LOS, and in-hospital mortality) in patients with visible hematuria on either DOAC therapy, VKA therapy or no anticoagulants. RESULTS : We included 811 (100%) patients with visible hematuria; 53 (6.5%) patients were on DOAC, compared to 85 (10.5%) on VKA and 673 (83.0%) patients without any anticoagulation. In confounder-adjusted multivariable testing, there were fewer hospitalizations (odds ratio: 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-4.9, P = .028) and shorter LOS (geometric mean ratio: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-4.0, P = .006) on DOAC than on VKA. The secondary outcomes were not significantly associated with the anticoagulation groups. No differences were found between the DOAC and no-anticoagulant groups for any outcome. CONCLUSIONS : Visible hematuria in patients on DOAC therapy is associated with shorter hospital stays and fewer hospitalizations compared to VKA.