An innovative and simple synthesis strategy of silicon nanoparticle (Si NP) core covered by mesoporous shell carbon (MSC) structure is demonstrated. The Si core@MSC (SCMSC) composite is developed for addressing the issues for Si anode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) such as high volume expansion and low electrical conductivity. Significant improvement in the electrochemical performance for the SCMSC anode is observed compared with bare Si anode. The SCMSC composite delivers an initial specific capacity of 2450 mAh g-1 at 0.166 A g-1 with Coulombic efficiency of 99.2% for 100 cycles. Compared to bare Si anode, the SCMSC anode exhibits much higher Li storage capacity, superior cyclability, and good rate capability, highlighting the advantages of hierarchical MSC in the SCMSC structure.