Solute carriers in scallop genome: Gene expansion and expression regulation after exposure to toxic dinoflagellate.

Affiliation

Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding (Ministry of Education), Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), 1 Wenhai Road, Qingdao, 266237, China. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

The solute carriers (SLCs) are membrane proteins that transport many endogenous and exogenous substances such as xenobiotic toxins. Bivalve mollusks, mainly feeding on microalgae, show marked capacity to accumulate paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), the most common and hazardous marine biotoxins produced by dinoflagellates. Exploring the SLCs related to PST accumulation in bivalve could benefit our understanding about the mechanisms of PST bioavailability in bivalve and the adaptations of these species. Herein, we provided the first systematic analysis of SLC genes in mollusks, which identified 673 SLCs (PySLCs, 48 subfamilies) in Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis), 510 (48 subfamilies) in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), and 350 (47 subfamilies) in gastropod owl limpet (Lottia gigantea). Significant expansion of subfamilies SLC5, SLC6, SLC16, and SLC23 in scallop, and SLC46 subfamily in both scallop and oyster were revealed. Different PySLC members were highly expressed in the developmental stages and adult tissues, and hepatopancreas harboured more specifically expressed PySLCs than other tissues/organs. After feeding the scallops with PST-producing dinoflagellate, 131 PySLCs were regulated and more than half of them were from the expanded subfamilies. The trend of expression fold change in regulated PySLCs was consistent with that of PST changes in hepatopancreas, implying the possible involvement of these PySLCs in PST transport and homeostasis. In addition, the PySLCs from the expanded subfamily were revealed to be under positive selection, which might be related to lineage-specific adaptation to the marine environments with algae derived biotoxins.

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