Sperm handling in aquatic animals for artificial reproduction.

Affiliation

Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture, Nord University, NO - 8049, Bodø, Norway. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Artificial reproduction involves collection and handling of gametes in a way that secures their quality and maximizes the fertilization outcome. In addition to initial sperm quality, numerous steps can affect the final result of fertilization, from the sperm collection process until gamete mixing (or co-incubation) when the spermatozoon enters or fuses with the oocyte. In this review, we summarize the whole process of sperm handling, from collection until fertilization for fish, penaeid shrimp, bivalve mollusks and marine mammals. To obtain sperm from captive animals, techniques vary widely across taxa, and include stripping by abdominal massage or testis surgical removal in fish, spermatophore collection in penaeid shrimps, gonadal scarification or temperature shock in bivalve mollusks, and voluntary collection via positive reinforcement in mammals. In most cases, special care is needed to avoid contamination by mucus, seawater, urine, or feces that can either activate sperm motility and/or decrease its quality. We also review techniques and extender solutions used for refrigerated storage of sperm across the aforementioned taxa. Finally, we give an overview of the different protocols for in vivo and in vitro fertilization including activation of sperm motility and methods for gamete co-incubation. The present study provides valuable information regarding breeder management either for animal production or species conservation.

Keywords

Assisted reproduction,In vitro fertilization,In vitro reproduction,Sperm extraction,Spermatozoa:oocyte ratio,

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