Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 caused by a nonsense mutation in the PRKCG gene.

Affiliation

Department of Molecular and Pharmacological Neuroscience, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia with myoclonus, dystonia, spasticity, and rigidity. Although missense mutations and a deletion mutation have been found in the protein kinase C gamma (PRKCG) gene encoding protein kinase C γ (PKCγ) in SCA14 families, a nonsense mutation has not been reported. The patho-mechanisms underlying SCA14 remain poorly understood. However, gain-of-function mechanisms and loss-of-function mechanisms, but not dominant negative mechanisms, were reported the patho-mechanism of SCA14. We identified the c.226C>T mutation of PRKCG, which caused the p.R76X in PKCγ by whole-exome sequencing in patients presenting cerebellar atrophy with cognitive and hearing impairment. To investigate the patho-mechanism of our case, we studied aggregation formation, cell death, and PKC inhibitory effect by confocal microscopy, western blotting with cleaved caspase 3, and pSer PKC motif antibodies, respectively. PKCγ(R76X)-GFP have aggregations the same as wild-type (WT) PKCγ-GFP. The PKCγ(R76X)-GFP inhibited PKC phosphorylation activity more than GFP alone. It also induced more apoptosis in COS7 and SH-SY5Y cells compared to WT-PKCγ-GFP and GFP. We first reported SCA14 patients with p.R76X in PKCγ who have cerebellar atrophy with cognitive and hearing impairment. Our results suggest that a dominant negative mechanism due to truncated peptides produced by p.R76X may be at least partially responsible for the cerebellar atrophy.

Keywords

Dominant negative,Nonsense mutation,PKCγ,SCA14,

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