Strategies for improving diabetic therapy via alternative administration routes that involve stimuli-responsive insulin-delivering systems.


Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, and Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address: [Email]


The encapsulation of insulin in micro- or nanodelivery systems may eliminate the need for frequent subcutaneous injections, improving the quality of life of diabetic patients. Formulations for oral, intranasal, pulmonary, subcutaneous, and transdermal administration have been developed. The use of stimuli-responsive polymeric carriers that can release the encapsulated drug in response to changes of the environmental stimuli or external activation enables the design of less invasive or non-invasive systems for smart insulin delivery from depots in the body. This article will look at strategies for the development of responsive delivery systems and the future meeting of the demands of new modes of insulin delivery.


Alternative routes,Diabetes mellitus,Glucose sensing,Insulin delivery,Stimuli-responsiveness,