Strategies for incorporating patient-reported outcomes in the care of people with chronic kidney disease (PRO kidney): a protocol for a realist synthesis.


Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta, Edmonton Clinic Health Academy 11405-87 Ave, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 1C9, Canada. [Email]


Patient-reported outcomes and experience measures (jointly referred to here as PROs) are internationally recognized as a means for patients to provide information about their quality of life, symptoms, and experiences with care. Although increasingly recognized as key to improving the quality of healthcare at individual (e.g., patients, caregivers, and providers) and aggregate (e.g., government, policy/system-wide decision-making) levels, there are important knowledge gaps in our understanding of how PROs are, and can be, used across different settings, particularly in nephrology to enhance person-centered care. This knowledge is needed for developing strategies to guide optimal use of PROs in nephrology care. Currently, no strategies exist. The purpose of this review is to address this knowledge gap by answering the following realist question: How can PROs be used to enhance person-centered nephrology care, both at individual and aggregate levels?


Clinical kidney practice,Knowledge translation,Patient-reported experience measures (PREMs),Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs),Patient-reported outcomes (PROs),Person-centered care,Quality of care,Quality of life,Realist synthesis/review,