Strategies for increasing the throughput of super-resolution microscopies.


EPFL, Laboratory for Experimental Biophysics, Institute of Physics, Lausanne, 1015, Switzerland. Electronic address: [Email]


Fluorescence microscopy methods have been developed to circumvent the diffraction limit by exploiting nonlinearities in the interactions between light and fluorophores. Initially, these methods were up to orders of magnitude slower than standard microscopies. In recent years, a wide array of technological advances have increased the throughput of super-resolution microscopies, through parallelization, smart scanning or data processing, and sample expansion. Here, we review recent innovations for increased throughput, some applications that have benefitted from them, and how they could be improved in the future.