An active polysaccharide (LPD2) was isolated from longan pulp by comparing the effects of polysaccharides on the phagocytosis of macrophages. LPD2 was composed of arabinose, mannose, glucose, and galactose in a molar ratio of 0.25:0.49:1:0.5 with average molecular weight of 9.64 × 106 Da. The main linkages of the sugar residues of LPD2 were (1→4)-β-Glc and (1→6)-β-Man. LPD2 significantly enhanced the lymphocytes proliferation, phagocytosis and NO and IL-6 secretion by macrophage. The anti-TLR2 and anti-TLR4 mAbs markedly suppressed LPD2-mediated NO and IL-6 production. Furthermore, anti-TLR4 or anti-TLR2 plus anti-TLR4 treatment significantly decreased LPD2-induced increase of MyD88, IRAK4, TRAF6 and INOS mRNA expression. Moreover, western blotting analysis showed that LPD2 enhanced the expression of target proteins in MyD88/IRAK4-TRAF6- INOS pathways. These results suggested that LPD2 induced macrophage activation partly via the TLR2- and TLR4-mediated MyD88/IRAK4-TRAF6 signaling pathways. Knowing the structural features and activities of active polysaccharide of longan gives the insights into longan polysaccharide application as an immunomodulatory agent.