Structure Identification of ViceninII Extracted from Dendrobium officinale and the Reversal of TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial⁻Mesenchymal Transition in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells through TGF-β/Smad and PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathways.
ViceninII is a naturally flavonoid glycoside extracted from Dendrobium officinale, a precious Chinese traditional herb, has been proven to be valuable for cancer treatment. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), promotes the induction of epithelial⁻mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process involved in the metastasis of cells that leads to enhanced migration and invasion. However, there is no previously evidence that ViceninII has an inhibitory effect on cancer metastasis, specifically on the TGF-β1-induced EMT process in lung adenocarcinoma cells. In this experiment, we used UV, ESIMS, and NMR to identify the structure of ViceninII.A549 and H1299 cells were treated with TGF-β1 in the absence and presence of ViceninII, and subsequent migration and invasion were measured by wound-healing and transwell assays. The protein localization and expressions were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. The results indicated that TGF-β1 induced spindle-shaped changes, increased migration and invasion, and upregulated or downregulated the relative expression of EMT biomarkers. Meanwhile, these alterations were significantly inhibited when co-treated with ViceninII and inhibitors LY294002 and SB431542. In conclusion, ViceninII inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT via the deactivation of TGF-β/Smad and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways.This is the first time that the anti-metastatic effects of ViceninII have been demonstrated, and their molecular mechanisms provided.