Interactions between 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IL), an ionic liquid, and Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) were studied under different kinetic conditions to investigate the adsorption behavior of IL by Na-MMT. The adsorption of IL by Na-MMT was rapid, with a fast rate, reaching a capacity of 0.43 mmol/g, lower than Na-MMT's cation exchange capacity (CEC) of 0.90 mmol/g. Meanwhile, the highest adsorption rate occurred at the IL concentration of 1000 mg/L. The exchangeable cation of Na-MMT could not be completely substituted by the cation group of IL regardless of the IL concentration. Stoichiometric desorption experiments confirmed that the cation exchange was the dominating adsorption mechanism for the IL adsorption by Na-MMT. The pH value of the solution between 2 and 11 had a negligible effect on the adsorption amount of IL by Na-MMT. The cation group of IL interacted into the interlayer of Na-MMT successfully, resulting in the change in the wettability of Na-MMT. A bilayer formation of the cationic group should occur in the interlayer of the modified Na-MMT and the configuration of IL was dependent on the adsorption amount of IL. Furthermore, the thermal stability of the modified Na-MMT was also dependent on the adsorption amount of IL.