Synergistic effects between ADORA2A and DRD2 genes on anxiety disorders in children with ADHD.


Post-Graduate Program in Biosciences, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address: [Email]


The prevalence of anxiety disorders in patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is around 15-40%, three times higher than in the general population. The dopaminergic system, classically associated with ADHD, interacts directly with the adenosinergic system through adenosine A2A receptors (A2A) and dopamine D2 receptors (D2) forming A2A-D2 heterodimers. Both dopaminergic and adenosinergic systems are implicated in anxiety disorders. Therefore, the aims of this study were: a) to investigate the main effects of ADORA2A and DRD2 gene variants on anxiety disorders in an ADHD sample of children and adolescents; b) to test potential synergism between ADORA2A and DRD2 genes on the same outcome; c) to explore ADORA2A variants functionality using an in silico approach. The sample consists of 478 children and adolescents with ADHD and their parents, totalizing 1.239 individuals. An association between the ADORA2A rs2298383 TT genotype with the presence of anxiety disorders (P = .004) and an interaction between ADORA2A-DRD2 risk haplotypes with the same outcome (P = .005) was detected. The in silico analyses showed that rs2298383 has the highest score for regulatory function among all variants in the ADORA2A gene described up to date. Altogether, the present findings suggested that the ADORA2A gene and the interaction of ADORA2A and DRD2 genes may play a role in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD.


Adenosine,Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder,Dopamine,Gene-gene interaction,

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