Synthesis, characterization, anticancer evaluation and mechanisms of cytotoxic activity of novel 3-hydroxy-3-pyrrolin-2-ones bearing thenoyl fragment: DNA, BSA interactions and molecular docking study.

Affiliation

University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Radoja Domanovića 12, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

In order to make a progress in discovering a new agents for chemotherapy with improved properties and bearing in mind the fact that substituted 3-hydroxy-3-pyrrolin-2-ones belong to a class of biologically active compounds, series of novel 1,5-diaryl-4-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-3-hydroxy-3-pyrrolin-2-ones were synthesized and characterized by spectral (UV-Vis, IR, NMR, ESI-MS), X-ray and elemental analysis. All compounds were examined for their cytotoxic effect on human cancer cell lines HeLa and MDA-MB 231 and normal fibroblasts (MRC-5). Four compounds, 3-hydroxy-1-(p-tolyl)-4-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-2-one (D10), 3-hydroxy-1-(3-nitrophenyl)-4-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-5-(4-(benzyloxy)phenyl)-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-2-one (D13), 3-hydroxy-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-4-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-5-(4-(benzyloxy)phenyl)-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-2-one (D14), and 3-hydroxy-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-5-(4-(benzyloxy)phenyl)-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-2-one (D15), that showed the highest cytotoxicity against malignant cells and the best selectivity towards normal cells were selected for further experiments. Results obtained by investigating mechanisms of cytotoxic activity suggest that selected 3-hydroxy-3-pyrrolin-2-one derivatives in HeLa cells induce apoptosis that is associated with S phase arrest (D13, D15, and D10) or unrelated to cell cycle distribution (D14). Additionally, to better understand their suitability for potential use as anticancer medicaments we studied the interactions between biomacromolecules (DNA or BSA) and D13 and D15. The results indicated that D13 and D15 have great affinity to displace EB from the EB-DNA complex through intercalation [Ksv = (3.7 ± 0.1) and (3.4 ± 0.1) × 103 M-1, respectively], an intercalative mode also confirmed through viscosity measurements. Ka values, obtained as result of fluorescence titration of BSA with D13 and D15 [Ka = (4.2 ± 0.2) and (2.6 ± 0.2) × 105 M, respectively], support the fact that a significant amount of the tested compounds could be transported and distributed through the cells. In addition, by DNA and BSA molecular docking study for D13, D14 and D15 is determined and predicted the binding mode and the interaction region.

Keywords

3-Hydroxy-3-pyrrolin-2-ones,Antitumor activity,BSA binding study,DNA binding study,Mechanisms of cytotoxic activity,Molecular docking,