Synthesis, in silico and in vitro studies of new 1,4-dihydropiridine derivatives for antitumor and P-glycoprotein inhibitory activity.


Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address: [Email]


P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the cell membrane pumps which mediate the efflux of molecules such as anticancer drugs to the extracellular matrix of tumor cells. P_gp is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family that is implicated in cancer multidrug resistance (MDR). Since MDR is a contributor to cancer chemotherapy failure, modulation of efflux pumps is a viable therapeutic strategy. In this study, new synthetic 1,4 dihydropiridine (DHP) derivatives containing thiophenyl substitution were tested as inhibitors of P-gp. Efflux assay was conducted to evaluate the intracellular accumulation of Rhodamine123 (Rh123) as a pump substrate. MTT assay, cell cycle analysis and in silico methods were also examined. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that synthetic DHP derivatives (15 µM) increased intracellular concentration of the substrate by 2-3 folds compared with verapamil as a standard P-gp inhibitor. MTT assay on EPG85-257P and its drug-resistant EPG85-257RDB cell line revealed antitumor effects (30-45%) for new DHP derivatives at 15 µM following 72 h incubation. However, MTT test on normal cell line showed negligible toxic effects. Finally combination of synthetic derivatives with doxorubicin showed that these compounds decrease IC50 of doxorubicin in resistant cell lines from 9 to 1.5 µM. Sub-G1 peak-related apoptotic cells showed a stronger effect of synthetic compounds at 5 µM compared with verapamil. Molecular dynamic results showed a high binding affinity between DHP derivative and protein at drug binding site. Findings of these biological tests indicated the antitumor activity and P-gp inhibitory effects of new 1,4-DHP derivatives.


1,4-Dihydropyridine,Apoptosis,Cytotoxicity,Efflux assay,Molecular dynamic,P-glycoprotein,

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