Synthesis of thymol-based pyrazolines: An effort to perceive novel potent-antimalarials.

Author

Dushyant Singh Raghuvanshi

Affiliation

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, P.O. CIMAP, Kukrail Road, Lucknow 226015, India. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

A series of thymol based substituted pyrazolines and chalcones was synthesized and evaluated for antimalarial activity, using in-vitro and in-vivo malaria models. All the target compounds (5a-k and 6a-j) were found to be active against human malaria parasite strain Plasmodium falciparum NF54. Among all, compounds 5e and 5f of chalcone series and 6c and 6f of pyrazoline series exhibited prominent antimalarial activity with IC50 less than 3 and 2 μM respectively, while other pyrazolines also significantly inhibited the P. falciparum with IC50 less than 10 μM. The designed pharmacophores were found to be effective against P. falciparum. Compound 6f was found to be able to retard malaria progression in mice. This was evident through decreased parasitemia, increased mean survival time and hemoglobin content in the treated animals. Moreover, 6f was observed as an inhibitor of heme polymerization pathway of the malaria parasite. It also inhibited free heme degradation, which could be possibly responsible for higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) in parasite, thus inhibiting the rapid proliferation of the parasite. In addition to this, compound 6f was found to be non-toxic with a good selectivity index. Based on these observations, the compound 6f could be taken up for further antimalarial lead optimization studies.

Keywords

Antiplasmodial studies,Hemozoin,Huisgen zwitterion mechanism,Pyrazolines,Thymol,Toxicity,